So basically the atmega328p microcontroller, which is 8 bit microcontroller, which we have talked right so supports uh, 23 io lines. So what is these io lines are? Basically, the gpao, which we talked a general purpose, input output, where you can connect switches, leds or use it as control pin for any of the external controller example gate control of a mosfet. So all these, so all these kinds of applications to avail all these applications. Basically, you can use these 23 gpu pins, so if we see uh the headers here, so all these gpio pins are pulled uh to these headers, all the 23 gpo pins and um. The one important point we have to see is: we cannot use all the 23 io lines, because these io lines are multiplexed with several other functionalities. Like example, we have talked about analog, we have talked about i2c, we have talked about spi. We talked about pwm right, so these gpios and then you are basically thats the preliminary thing. So all these functionalities are multiplexed with the gpio pins. That means a specific pin supports either gpio or the other function. So ultimately uh, even the 23 io lines have been claimed. Uh. If you are using the arduino board for some other interfacing, then you cannot use all the 23 gpaos. So even you take any microcontroller. So basically thats a marketing strategy where they claim the weapo pins, but ultimately, if you use it in application, it comes down to very low count.

If you see the dinner, you know board, it has basically four leds, okay, so the qualities that you see here are for the serial port, which is uh basically uh on the uart. Where uh once uh, you see a data, they use uh uh, whether it its a tx or rx uh, the specific led, close so very important, and it helps to know whether there is a data transmission happening or not so, and then there are other than this. There are two other leds: one is power on led and the second one is uh uh led, which is uh connected to the gpa of the 80 mega 328p. That means you can use it as an user led, like example, you can control it using a pwm. You can control it using uh, a simple gpu on off toggling, so um, the total four leds are there, uh way out of which you can play around with the user, led the other suffix for specific functions like the lcd. What or the power led? If you see the arduino uno board right here, you see some tilt symbol here, still against six pin till that is fifth pin till latest between nine. So what this indicates is basically a pwm functionality. You can see here, pwm tilde, so there are several pin pwm pins uh that are supported by the arduino board. So this still symbol you see indicates that uh pwm is used. Where do we use pwm? Basically, we use it in motor control applications and you can use it for a led control.

Like example uh. If you want to blow an led a simple thing, is you can just put your pin high, like output or pin high and keep it forever so that the led close continuously? But that is a very power power consuming scenario, so you need an application at any situation that it consumes as low power as possible. So in that case you can do a pwm, controlled, uh led blowing, so which basically, you see that the led is continuously growing. But ultimately, in the background, its a pwm control, that means you are saving some power instead of having it continuously. So a very, very important thing we will see about that in the future videos and then another very, very important point: the operating temperature, so many guys around the world either they might use the arduino. You know as a hobby board and try n number of applications, but there are other guys outside where they try. They use arduino. You know for some of the practical applications so real time applications, basically so in those real time applications. It is very, very important that, for a specific project, you need to know uh at what temperature range you can use this arduino board. Like example, if you see the temperature specification of 80 mega 328p, the operating temperature of this particular microcontroller is minus 40 to 125. Its huge right, automotive, almost yeah, so now uh, considering that scenario uh can we expect the arduino board to work at minus 40 to 125? No, definitely, no, because you have several components on this arduino uno board, along with this uh micro controller chip.

So you have a usb controller, you have crystals, you have electrolytic capacitors, you can see the electrolytic capacitors here you have regulators right. There are several things you have leds. So considering all these, you cannot use at minus 40 to 125. Definitely why? Because this uh, you need to know all the operating temperatures of the existing devices and the worst case scenario of a specific device need to be considered to know what is the actual temperature at which arduino you know can be used. So considering that scenario, if you see the arduino website, they say um, you can use the dino board comfortably with between 25 to 70 degrees centigrade. So that means this. Basically, if you want to use it in a very critical industrial environment or any other high temperature environments, then you have to think twice uh to see uh if this board works, so that thats one of the major reasons so ultimately that the aim of arduino, you Know is not a industrial application, its a commercial application where people use this board as a hobby project and develop number of applications around it. And ultimately, this is targeted to improve uh the the code building capacities, especially among the students so and slowly it gained popularity and it came to industrial applications as well, but considering the temperature range. You know now that arduino is a no go. If your operating temperature ranges are higher, so this is one of the major question many people ask um like or if you ask a guy who is a embryo, professional hell, say arduino, you know its just a hobby board which cannot be used for industrial applications.

The reason why he says that is based on this temperature and it doesnt mean that you cannot take away anything from what you know. You know what you know you know has its features, has its popularity and there are a number of communities with support and arduino community itself is huge and there are number of websites that do come up with a lot of inputs on ordinary, even our channel right. So very very important point, so its a big debate always happens between the industry, people and the hobbies and then another important point is. We have adc support right, thats what you see a0 to a5 on the arduino board. So the very very important thing about adc, which you want to know about its specification, is the resolution. So the resolution determines the the minimum variation of the adc val, the analog value, which can be read by the particular device right. So this particular er, 80 mega 328 p supports the adc resolution of 10 bit and hence arduino. You know supports a 10 bit resolution. So um thats a very, very important point to remember and then arduino, you know family. There are many many boats, okay, so in that uh one family, we just compared two boats at a very, very high level. So if you see both the boards, we have talked about arduino. You know that you have a usb controller chip and then you have a 80 mega 328p, but on arduino lenovo board you have a single chip which acts as both the usb controller and the main controller.

So it performs both the functionalities, so definitely a low cost. Uh and uh also um less space consuming uh uh point right. Definitely you dont need two microcontrollers. You dont consume that much of power. You dont occupy that much of form factor. You see, you can see the board here and then you can also see the differences between the parts on this board. One important thing you see is uh. Definitely the power supply is the same, but the usb programming port you see here. This has a mini usb and you can you can program it using even usb cables. These are differences at a very high level, so we will also talk about arduino lenovo in uh future videos, thanks for watching, if you like our videos, please give us a thumbs up.