how arduino breadboard works
. This is a breadboard. It’s, a rectangular piece of plastic with a grid of holes that allows you to easily and quickly build electronic circuits by pushing electronic components into the holes.. For example, simple circuits like this one, with a battery and an onoff switch to control a light.. You can also build more complicated circuits, for example, lights that flash automatically or robots of all different shapes and sizes.. There are far more examples than we can list in the beginning of this short video.. At this point, you might be thinking that this doesn’t really look like it has anything to do with bread.. The name breadboard comes from the early days of electronic circuits when people would literally use wooden boards with screws or nails driven into them to make electronic connections.. Modern breadboards are made from plastic and come in all shapes sizes and even different colors., The most common sizes. You will probably see are full size, breadboards, half size, breadboards and mini breadboards., Larger and smaller sizes are available and many breadboards come with tabs and notches on the side that allow you to snap two or more of them together. But a single breadboard will be more than sufficient for most beginner projects. Let’s. Take a closer look at how a breadboard actually works. The holes of a breadboard. Allow you to easily push the leads or metal legs of a component like this LED into them and then will lightly hold them in place.
. This connection is strong enough that the LED won’t fall out on its own, but light enough that, if you make a mistake, you can easily pull it out and put it in a new location.. Technically, these are called solderless breadboards because they can make these connections without using solder or melted metal, to permanently bond electronic components. Together. Let’s find out how breadboards can hold onto components without using solder.. If you flip a breadboard over, they come with an adhesive backing that allows you to permanently stick them onto a project, for example the breadboard stuck to this robot.. If you remove that backing completely like I’ve done with this breadboard here, you expose a series of metal strips that are inside the breadboard.. These metal strips are what make mechanical and electrical connections to the components you insert into the breadboard.. We can remove one of these metal strips by pushing it out from the front to see what it looks like up. Close. Each strip is a series of five clips that line up with the holes in the breadboard. When you push a component into the breadboard. These clips are what’s actually grabbing onto the leads like you can see here with this LED.. This breadboard is actually made from transparent plastic, so you can see the clips from the outside. When you press a lead into one of the holes it’s just getting grabbed onto by one of these clips. Let’s. Take a closer look at the writing on the front of your breadboard.
. Your breadboard has columns labeled from A through J and rows that start with one and go up to a number that depends on the size of the breadboard.. These labels make it easy to follow directions when building a circuit.. For example, all of these holes are in column, C, and all of these holes are in row, 12.. Hole C12 is where column C intersects row 12.. There are also long strips on either side of your breadboard that are usually labeled with red and black or red and blue lines, and also a plus or minus sign.. These are called buses or rails and are used to deliver power to your entire circuit.. Typically, the red one marked with a plus sign will connect to the positive battery terminal and the black or blue one marked with a minus sign will connect to the negative battery terminal.. Some breadboards, like this mini one, do not have power buses at all., Some full size, breadboards have power buses that run the entire length of the breadboard, as indicated by the continuous, unbroken red and black lines.. Other ones have power buses that only run half the length of the breadboard, as indicated by the break in the lines here.. This is convenient if you have a circuit that needs to be powered by two different voltage levels.. In order to use a breadboard, it really helps to understand how all the holes are. Connected. Let’s take a look at hole A1, as an example.
. Remember that inside the breadboard are sets of five metal clips.. This means that hole A1 is electrically connected to hole, B1 hole, C1, D1 and E1.. It is not connected to hole A1, because that hole is in a different row and they do not share the same set of metal clips.. It is also not connected to any of the holes on the other side of the gap in the middle of the breadboard. That’s holes. F1, G1, H1, I1 and J1. We’ll explain more about what this gap means in a little bit.. This diagram shows all of the connections on the breadboard highlighted with yellow lines. Each set of five holes forming half a row that’s those on the left in columns A through E and those on the right in columns F through J is electrically connected.. The power buses run vertically on the sides of the breadboard and are typically connected over more than five holes, although this can vary from breadboard to breadboard.. The individual power buses are not connected to each other.. Let’S. Take a look at what all this means for a common demonstration circuit with a battery a resistor and an LED.. When I turn the battery pack on the LED lights, up. Pretty simple., Now let’s zoom in and see how I actually have everything connected on the breadboard.. The battery pack’s red lead is connected to the power bus on the right side of the breadboard.. This is connected to a jumper wire that goes to row 5, which then goes to the LED over to row 5 on the other side, to a resistor to the ground bus and then to the battery pack’s black lead.
. This diagram shows how electricity flows through the circuit using yellow arrows.. This is called a closed circuit or a complete path for electricity to flow.. Remember that on each separate half of the breadboard, the holes in row 5 are electrically connected to each other.. This means, for example, that I can take the leads of the LED and move them to different holes in row 5, and it will still light up.. However, if I take the LED and move it to a different row entirely like row 4 or row 6, it does not light up, because there is no path for the electricity to flow.. It has to be in row 5 to have that complete path.. You can also reconfigure the entire circuit., For example. Here I am going to move the LED and the resistor over to the right side of the breadboard and then connect the battery pack’s negative lead to the ground bus on this side.. While this looks different electrically, it is the same circuit, so the LED still lights. Up.. You can see that in this diagram by tracing the yellow, arrows and noticing that there is still a closed path for the electricity to flow through the LED.. Now, let’s take a look at some of the most common mistakes that students make when learning to use a breadboard.. Here we have the demonstration circuit from the previous part of the video with a battery a resistor and an LED.
. At first glance, everything probably looks fine, but when I turn the battery pack on the LED doesn’t light up., You won’t know why. Unless you look closely at the breadboard., When we zoom in you can see that one of the LED leads is actually in the wrong row. Notice, how all of the connections are in row 5, except for this lead of the LED, which is in row 4.. Remember that rows 4 and 5 are not electrically connected. So in order for electricity to have a complete path to flow, we have to move that LED lead over to row 5 and then the LED will light up.. Every time you build a circuit, you should always double check your wiring to make sure your connections are in the right place.. Another common mistake is not firmly pushing leads or wires into the breadboard. All the way. Watch. What happens if I pull this jumper wire out slightly, so the connection is loose., The LED will still light up intermittently, but bumping the wire or shaking the breadboard can easily make the LED go out. To make sure the connections stay secure. You have to make sure the jumper wire is pushed firmly into the breadboard on both ends.. The same goes for other components like the LED itself.. You can see that if I pull the LED out slightly, it might look like it’s actually pushed into the breadboard, but it’s actually very loose and won’t stay lit.
. This is because the leads aren’t pushed in all the way so to make sure it stays on. You have to make sure the LED is pushed firmly into the breadboard, along with the rest of the components.. The next common mistake will depend on the individual components in the project. You’Re doing.. Some components have polarity, meaning the direction they are facing. Matters. LEDs are a great and very common example. Notice. How if I grab the LED and flip it around it, doesn’t stay lit.. If you look closely at an LED you’ll see that the two legs are actually slightly different lengths.. The longer leg is the positive side and has to be connected to the battery pack’s red lead.. The shorter leg is the negative side and needs to be connected to the black lead.. The resistor, on the other hand, does not have a polarity associated with it. So I can flip the resistor around and the circuit will still work just fine. When using a breadboard you’ll have to decide what type of jumper wires you want to use and there are several different types. Available. First are these long, flexible, wires that come in many different colors and are usually sold in packs of at least 10.. The wires themselves are very flexible, but they have metal pins attached to their ends that make them easy to press into the breadboard.. While these wires can be very convenient for simple circuits, they can get very messy for complicated circuits and, as you add, more and more to a breadboard, you’ll eventually get a tangled nest of wires.
That can be very hard to keep track. Of.. Another option is to buy a jumper wire kit.. This is a small plastic container that comes with many different colors of wire that are pre cut to certain lengths.. The ends of these wires are bent down 90 degrees, which makes them easy to press into the breadboard and keep the wire flat, which can make the circuit much neater than the longer loopier, flexible wires.. The downside of these kits is that they usually only come with one or two lengths for each color, which can make it difficult to color code. Your circuit.. The final option is to purchase special spools of wire called hookup wire and use a tool called a wire stripper to cut them to length and then strip off some of the insulation to make your own jumper wires.. You can see here, I’m, just taking the spool of wire cutting a short segment of it, then using the wire strippers to strip insulation off of each end.. When you’re done, you just have to bend the ends of the wire down and then you’ll be left with a piece similar to what comes with the jumper wire kit that easily fits into the breadboard.. The advantage here is that you can buy several spools of wire of different colors and then cut them to any length you want. So you can color code, your circuit.. If you do decide to buy your own hookup wire, you need to make sure you buy solid core wire and not stranded.
Wire. Solid core wire has wire made of a single, solid piece of metal that is very stiff and easy to push into a breadboard. Stranded wire is made up of multiple individual, smaller strands kind of like a rope.. This makes the overall wire much more flexible, but the ends are also flexible and therefore much harder to push into a breadboard without just bending them.. If you were watching closely earlier in the video, you might have noticed that I actually violated this rule. When I connected the battery pack, which comes with stranded wires., If you’re in a pinch, you don’t have access to solid core wire or a soldering iron, you can take the end of a stranded wire and twist the strands together as tightly as possible, and that will Make it somewhat easier to push into the breadboard but it’s still not the easiest way to go.? Finally, all this time, you might have been wondering what this gap that goes down the middle of the breadboard is for.. This gap is designed such that integrated circuits, sometimes just called chips that come in a dual in line package, meaning they have two rows of pins can fit nicely straddling the middle of the breadboard.. When you have a new chip, you might need to bend the pins together slightly so they’ll fit into the breadboard, but then you just have to line up all of the pins and press it in firmly, just like you would with any other component.
. This works great because now the pins on each side of the chip are each connected to their own row.. What you don’t want to do is put the entire chip just on one side of the breadboard, so it’s not straddling the gap.. Remember that the pins in each row on either side of the breadboard are electrically connected to each other. So if you put a chip in like this, you are shorting out the two pins in each row., Integrated circuits come in many different sizes and they all serve a special purpose. However, all of them will fit directly into a breadboard straddling this middle gap.. You can find a written version of this tutorial, along with other helpful electronics, tutorials like how to use a multimeter and how to strip wire all on our website www.sciencebuddies.org.. You can also browse our free library of over 1000 science and engineering project ideas.
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