arduino uno pinout
What we’re gon na do is we’re gon na basically go through these separate busses on the board and talk about how they function and how to basically wire up this board so giving a fairly in depth overview of each one of these pins and each one of These inputs, outputs and power plugs and how you can actually use them, so let’s go ahead and start with the most obvious one right here. This plug right here is the power. If you’ve got the Arduino kit, you generally get a nine volt battery adapter. That goes directly into this. This bus can take anywhere from about six to nine volts, that’s kind of the recommended range for it. Nine volts is ideal because it lets runs the whole board appropriately and doesn’t have anything short out or lose power at any time. So that is a basic power input and pretty much if you have a power adapter of any kind from six to nine volts that, like plugs into the wall, one of those black wall warts that gives off six to nine volts. You can plug it directly into this and power the whole board right here. This is the USB input. If you look at it right here, it is a printer USB see just like a standard printer cable, almost any printer cable that you will ever find for any kind of desktop printer will have a core that fits this. So if you have that laying around the house or the school or the classroom, you can use one of those right here this button, as you can see, pressing right there, that is the reset button and what it basically does is it shuts down the whole Arduino And turns it back on more or less it’s, not exactly what happens, but it starts the program or the firmware over from scratch.
So if you had something that only happens in the beginning of your Arduino program, you can press that button and the whole thing will restart without having to re upload code or anything like that. Okay, so those are the three main ones right there. So now we can just go. I want to talk about a few LEDs here. This is the on LED. If you’ve got power to the Arduino that will be on and then these two little LEDs are important because they show you if the board is communicating with a computer, TX and rx are a USB turn for incoming and outcoming signals. Basically, so if those lights are either not on or not moving, or none of those reacting in ways that either indicate in the case of the USB communication or in the case of on being on, then you have a problem with the board somewhere and you need To start debugging that somehow we’re gon na ignore all of these pins right here and right here, because they’re really not that important to anything you’ll do with the Arduino most of the time, so let’s go ahead and start over here. Let’S start a pin zero. Just to get this out of the way so pin 0 right here. If you look at that, we can’t really show it in the picture right here, but it has an Rx and an arrow, pointing in, as I said before, TX and rx are what’s called UART, which is a universal communication standard that’s, basically like USB it’s.
What a? What a USB uses these two pins can actually replace a USB cord. If you have two Arduino, is communicating with each other or anything else. You can’t use the USB port to send signals between them. You have to use some one of these pins and a good way to do it is with UART, and you can do it through the TX and the rx here. These are also good for you’ll need to use these for connecting to bluetooth modules like son, founder or any of those small Bluetooth modules. These are the two pins that you will use for incoming signals and outgoing signals with TX and rx we’ll talk about that. Probably in some other tutorial, but the rx, as I said, is incoming signals, which means that when you connect it to a something say like a Bluetooth, module it’s, the Bluetooth modules TX will come into this rx and the Bluetooth modules. Rx will go into the TX because it’s just a pairing like that of outgoing signals from the Bluetooth which our TX have to come to the end coming signals. The our export here of the Arduino, alright so there’s that now any other pin that doesn’t have some special little character by it is digital. So if you move up to number 2, you can see it just says: well, that’s a digital pin and it digital pen can be on or it can be off and that’s. The only thing they do.
You can use these for sending signals or connecting a button to them. You can send a signal to it or I can send a signal out, but they can only be 0 or 1 on or off signals. If you go up to 3 you’ll see it’s got that teeny a little squiggle right next to the 3 right there that little squiggle or that’s the 5 3 right there, that the squiggle that means it’s a PWM output and PWM stands for pulse width. Modulation, pulse width, modulation lets you send an analog signal of sorts and we might do a video describing PWM a little more in the future, but these are pins. You can use to control servos, you send a signal to the servo and the servo will move to some angle, but they can also operate as a digital pin. So if you need a whole number of on or off signals, you can use any PWM any of these pins on this side almost to send that on off signal, but the ones with the squiggles. So you can use to control servos or send some kind of an analog signal out and the same for is digital PWM or digital PWM or digital digital digital digital mean 0 or 1 PWM, our digital PWM, our digital. So on so forth, all the way up through 13, when you get to ground ground, is basically the negative signal for anything it’ll be the black wire on any of your motors, or anything like that.
If you don’t ever hook up a motor directly to an Arduino that’s, a bad style, because you can burn out the Arduino and we’ll explain that some other time, but the ground is just the negative connector to whatever it is. You happen to be connecting to maybe it’s the negative of a switch through the negative of a resistor or whatever you happen to be connecting that’s, where the ground goes a ref. This is a kind of a weird pin that almost no one will ever use, but it is meant to be used like if you have a potentiometer or some kind of an input or a PWM, a shield or some component. That needs a reference. An analog voltage reference of other than five volts. Then you need to use this because it will adjust to like 1.5 volts or 3 volts or anything else if that’s confusing it means you probably won’t, have to use this, and if you really do use this, you can go ahead and look up how to use It it’s so eclectic almost nobody will ever use this pen right here, so we’re not gon na go real in depth to it. It ok coming over here to io ref. This one is also really weird and we’re not going to talk about it at all period, because there’s, almost no situation would where you would ever use this reset. This pin right here it is the exact same as this button.
It does the same function as this button, so if you connected a button to this pin, then you can reset the whole Arduino, and this is useful in some projects where you want the Arduino to start over at certain periods. So you want to wire in your own switch that’s over on your robot or outside, or something that’s not connected just to the corner of this board that might be covered or buried, or in a case you can use this pin to make a switch where you Can reset the whole board? Ok, 3.3 volts. This pin gives off 3.3 volts if you have something that needs power at some chip or circuit that needs to powered with 3.3 volts or a potentiometer. That needs a reference at 3.3 volts. Then you can connect. This pin same goes with the 5 volts you’ll use 5 volts fairly, often most small electronics run off 5 volts and then again grounds a couple of ground pins you can connect to. These are exactly the same as this ground over here. There’S, no difference! If you need to connect to ground, you can use either any of these three here, they’re all identical, there’s, no difference to them. They’Re, just on different sides of the board. Ok and V in V in is special because it is a replacement for this thing over here. If you don’t have a plug in that, you can plug into this Arduino board and you’re not plugged into the USB powering the board and then the other way.
Then you can get a recommended again: 6 to 9 volt power supply and stick it to the in ten you, it shouldn’t go below six volts generally, because at that point the board will kind of be like an engine running off gas fumes, you’re just not giving It enough juice to really do what it needs to do to so things will fall out or it’ll stop running or anything else, so minimum of basically six volts on this that’s an experience based thing. The specs say something a little bit different, but six volts is the recommended minimum on this period. You might be able to go down to five volts and be okay, but that’s, just it’s not recommended at all. Okay. Now, as you can see right here, this whole bus, this whole group of pins separated right here are called analog in remember how I said the PWM are for sending an analog signal. The PWM are the ones with these little squiggles. Well, if you want to send an analog signal to the Arduino, and an analog signal is something that is like a fraction, something that has infinite decimal points. After all, it, a digital signal is yes or no completely. An analog signal can be kind of like 0.65, or something like that, if you want to send those kind of signals like the reference of a potentiometer or what the resistance is or some kind of other value along those lines, you can use these pins now.
These are only analog pins, they cannot be turned into digital pins or anything else. I can’t swap back and forth like all these over here. Can you can only send an analog resistance value into one of these pins and you, as you can see, you’ve got six of them right here from zero to five, and these are really just for sticking the wire in and sending a signal directly to the Arduino. Okay, so that basically gives us the full rundown of the pin out of the Arduino and the the main functionalities of it. This chip right here that you see, is an atmega328. The if you get an Arduino, sometimes you’ll see a small chip on this. A little small kind of like 1 centimeter by 1 centimeter square chip, replacing this big old bug, that’s normal and that’s, just the the modernization of the chips in Arduino up and everything else. This is kind of an older Arduino board, so it’s got the big old chip right there, but there’s really no difference in functionality that most people will notice. So final review over here you have PWM outputs or digital in and outs, TX and rx are replacements for the usb over. Here you have voltage coming out in two different levels. You have a reset pin that you can reset the whole Arduino instead of using this switch and you’ve got grounds, and then you’ve got V in. If you want to power the Arduino without using the USB or the power in from over here and then you’ve got analog in which are only for reading resistance values, so that’s, basically the Arduino in a nutshell, that’s a long video for explaining it.
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