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This video covers some basic breadboard, prototyping techniques and electronics, terminology and theory we’ll be using the Arduino plus 5 volt DC regulator to supply 5 volts to a couple of basic circuits that we will assemble on the solderless by doing a breadboard I’ll briefly talk about bread, Boarding resistors, LEDs and series and parallel circuit concepts, so no programming in this video, but we need to go over the basics of red building techniques terminologies. So we can build more complex circuits later on that the microcontroller will utilize with programming. So let’s get started on red boarding, some basic circuits, so here we have the arduino prototyping platform. You have the arduino uno on the left and we have a breadboard that will help us assemble our circuits without solder. So here are some of the basic components. We’Ll start using in this video have an LED which is short for light emitting diode your resistor, and we have some small switches, momentary switches that when you press them will turn well close the circuit or complete the circuit. A couple of those and, of course, bread, boating wires. These are pre cut wires that the ends have been stripped off. Some that can be pressed into the breadboard usually have different lengths to make it easy to connect your circuits. Now the breadboard allows you to connect your components and your power. You have here along the side, sort of like a rail all these pins on this long column here are all connected together.

So this is labeled red plus. So if you go and measure with a meter, you will see that these are all connected together. The are all connect together, but these two are separate. These two columns are separate from each other. On the other side, though, these rows are all connected together, but the columns are all separate. So to reinforce that idea. I have a meter here that I have set to check for continuity. That just means that it can measure. You know it’ll give an audible tone if something is electrically connected, so I have the two separate wires here. You can see when I touch them. The meter puts out a deep saying: okay, these are electrically connected or shorted together. So if we look on this breadboard here, real quick, we will see on the plus we’ll check the plus up put that in there that these are all connected down this column. Here we can even go to the other end as long as we stay in that column, but this column here is not connected. Only this long row here, a long column there’s nothing else on this board connected to that column. Same goes for if we go over to the negative here for the one that’s marked negative, it will only be whatever you connect to it, even though they’ve pre labeled it so now, let’s go look at the other section of the breadboard here these rows and you Will see that these pins are all connected, but they’re not connected to these other rows here, they’re all across and then this it’s it’s, the duplicate or a mirror image on the other side, with the exact same concept.

So this allows you to plug in chips. So each individual pin is accessible with a wire you can jump, use it also called jumper wires. Bread, boarding, wires and they’re, usually they’re solid they’re, not wires, that are stranded, it’s a solid, solid wire. So, with with these wires and components and the use of a voltage supply, in this case, the five volts we will be using will be from the five volt regulator on their guard. We know we can breadboard or assemble some circuits and have the arduino interact with those, but in this case we will just be assembling a circuit that will use the five volts as there’s no programming involved in this in this video. So no programming, we just go over some basic braid boarding techniques, so we can build more complex circuits later on that the microcontroller will utilize with programming, but for now we’ll just build a simple circuit and power it up with the 5 volt regulator on the Arduino. So let’s let’s go ahead and start that so along this left hand, side of the Arduino along this female header here is where all the power connections are including the 5 volts from the 5 volt regulator. You can see there now this doesn’t, this hasn’t, given us five volts on its own. The five volt regulator maintains five volts for us. It has a certain acceptable, acceptable range of voltages that it takes in and it’ll maintain or try to maintain five bolts on the output, but it gets its voltage on the input right now from will be getting from the USB port right here.

So I’ve inserted two wires in the five bolts in the ground connections on the female header there we’ll plug in the USB port, and you can see the five volts here – a meter and that’s what we will use to supply power to our circuit. In this particular video, when you initially breadboard any circuits, you do not want to have power on. So you want to disconnect to make sure all the powers disconnected whether you have a USB cable connected up to supply power or whether you have a separate 9 volt battery or a transformer hooked up to this. This plug here power plug so here’s a schematic of the basic circuit that we’re going to breadboard we’re, going to have our five volts. These four volts. We have a 220 ohm resistor that’s, the symbol for resistor, and this represents the amount of resistance to the flow of electricity through here. This is the symbol for an LED, and the LED has a polarity, meaning it has to have, has a certain way it plugs into or a certain direction that it plugs into a circuit. There is a plus side and a negative side. Usually, if you look at it from the lead side, you’ll have a flat spot on the LED on the package itself, and that is usually the cathode pin closest to that flat spot. Also, one lead can be longer and the longer lead is the positive lead. The a node also called the anode, so the shorter lead will go toward the ground and the longer lead will go to the plus side.

Also, you can see a polarity here, so let’s go ahead and breadboard this circuit up. So the first thing I want to do is to connect a wire from the 5 volts and 5 volt regulator to the 5 volts on the breadboard or what we will uses the 5 volts and it can go anywhere along this column. Here I put it right down at the bottom here and right next to that pin is the ground, pin and put that on this side here mark and that will be our access to the breadboard for the 5 volts on the ground. Next, we have a 220 ohm resistor that goes from 5 volts and we’ll. Just choose a location here, press the hand. Here we have our resistor, so I change the position of the resistor that’s the thing about the breadboard. You can manipulate change clean up. You know if you don’t like the way it looks the first time or how the layout is. You can change it pretty easily. So from the resistor we have the LED and we want the anode connected the longer lead connected to the resistor, and we now need to complete the circuit by connecting the cathode to the ground of the negative here and that’s our circuit. So before you hook anything up just review make sure the connections are the way they should be there’s, nothing shorted. So we can now go ahead and hook up our USB cable and then the LED is lit.

The reason the LED on the board is blinking is we’re still running. That blink program at the blink program is still on the microprocessor chip from the previous video, but you can see their LED is lit. Now the resistor is limiting the amount of current flowing through the LED. If we did not have that resistor, there would be too much electricity flowing through that LED and it would burn out so let’s. Add a new component to this basic circuit. We’Ll, add a switch! So we’ll have we’ll, still have the basic circuit that we started with with the resistor, but now we will have a switch and this switch will normally be open. So you need to press the button to close those contacts you to complete the circuit. So we’ll add that switch now now this is called a series circuit. All these components are in series one right after another. We have the resistor, give the switch and we have the LED, and what that also means is that the current flowing through this resistor is the same as the current that will flow through the switch that’ll also flow through the LED again before we do any bread. Wadding we want to disconnect the power here’s, the switch we will be adding just have to determine which two leads are connected when this button is pressed. So with the help of this continuity measurement here, this helps me figure out how to orient this see.

When I press these two leads are connected, so we need to make some changes. I’Ll remove this jumper wire here, the LED and we’ll insert the switch make sure we position it right. The a note of the longer lead of the LED goes to the other side of the switch and then again we have the wire to ground or the negative side here, and this led will only light when this button is pressed or closed. So let’s go ahead and hook up a USB cable and you can see is not LEDs, not lit so let’s press the button. There we go. We close the circuit where we complete the circuit when we press this switch down pretty basic, but there are still a lot of concepts involved here now let’s go ahead and add a second switch. So the only time the LED will light up in this situation is when both switches are pressed is, if only one switch is closed. If the circuit is still not completed, it is only completed when both switches are closed or pressed so I’ve already gone ahead and assembled that circuit let’s hook up the USB cable you can see here it is off, the LED is off and if we press any One of these by itself, nothing happens, but if we press both of them together the LED lights up now, this might seem pretty simple but saying there were two conditions: environmental conditions. You were monitoring, one could be temperature or the temperature sensor.

Another one could be humidity. A humidity sensor and you didn’t care there was a certain range or a certain value that you cared about. Well, you could instead of these switches, you could have this information going to the microcontroller and when both of these situations say a certain, you would pick a certain humidity value and a certain temperature value when they hit a certain range. You wanted the microcontroller to monitor those situations and then turn on a fan. So you could build upon this concept where you have to you’re looking at two occurrences to happen and when they are both happening. At the same time, you want the microcontroller to react and that that functionality, you will add, with programming and sensors, so you have to start here with this concept and you can build upon that and again, all these components are in series. You have the resistor followed by switch number one followed by switch number two and then the diode. So now let’s change this up again with this circuit we’ll introduce the concept of parallel, so these two switches on the previous circuit were in series. These two switches will be in parallel in this circuit. Both of these switches needed to be closed or pressed at the same time in order to get the LED light in this switch there. The current has two separate branches that it can flow through. In order to light this LED it can go through switch number one or switch number two or both, so you can switch just one by itself and it will complete the circuit or you can use switch number two by itself and complete the circuit.

Or you know you press both of them. At the same time, you will not see any difference. You’Ll just have current flowing through this path and this path to combine and then still light the LED so let’s take a look at that circuit. Real quick, so here’s the circuit with the switches in parallel, and you can see either this one lights up when pressed or this one, and if you press both you have currently so parallel. You just have branching circuits. You have different paths that the current can flow through, whereas in series you have one single path that the current is going to flow through so that’s it for this video, I hope I’ve helped. You understand some basic concepts here and some of the skills necessary with starting to breadboard your circuits that you will be putting together and on the programming side. We will use the microcontroller to control those circuits or read information from the circuits, so we’ve gone over.


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Comment (20)

  1. I want to build rc ardino car but dont know about electronics i studied only programming and know about basic of digital electronics …it is very hard for me to complete the project

  2. I love you calm, slow and thoroughly you speak. Even an child could watch this and understand. That’s pretty cool. It’s so much better to follow than a super hurried teacher. Awesome video, thanks a lot.

  3. Just starting out with Arduino and absolutely LOVED your videos. Out of all of them out there, I found yours to be the easiest to follow and understand. Thank you very much for doing this series!


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