arduino cnc shield


The linear bearings the ground, linear rails, incredibly, inexpensive timing belts, we’re gon na walk through all that how to interface it with the garble, get some code up and running and then hopefully, at the end of this we’ll, be able to export g code and use. I think we’ll try to fit a pen inside of that thing and do a drawing let’s dive right in. If you haven’t seen the first video yet here’s a screen shot and there’s a link. You click right on the video screen to pull up the first video that’s, where we walk through the setup of the garble shield, me arduino and some of the very basic settings today. What we’re gon na do, though, is mix that in with the hardware actual measurements and get this thing really running, let’s take a quick look at the SolidWorks CAD model, and I want to thank Craig Kelly he’s, a longtime viewer who was really instrumental in getting this Cad model put together and did a lot of work on it. So Craig a big thanks for your help on this and what I love about Craig’s work is that it’s not always a great to work with, but he understands simplicity, and that was the goal here. Let’S make this thing as simple and cheap, but for the sake of being cheap, but for the for the sake of figuring out, what can we do with a low cost machine and one that’s hopefully easy for you folks to make because that’s what I really want? I want everyone watching this video to be able to do this.

If you need one that’s more rigid, you can do that and we’re gon na do that actually pretty soon on a project involving proper linear rails, but you’re talking about hundreds of dollars just for some of the linear motion parts alone. So, as you can see here, the idea for me is to be able to dispense parts into a hopper as this tube moves around. We don’t need to worry about the trays below right now. You can see we’ve just got four pieces of angle bracket, Craighead machined them down, but if you take a look or in the in the SolidWorks have modeled them down. If you take a look on the actual thing I left, I let them all is three inch. Aluminum angle quarter inch thick and that be fine. You’Ve got to get some holes drilled to hold your bearings. I actually have just. I thought I was gon na oversized drilled on my hair and then ream them, but right now, they’re just press fit in there. So again, we’re just trying to get it done quickly. Folks and then, as you can see in the cat bottle, there’s not a split line shown. But the idea is that a screw would hold the timing belt together, because the best way to purchase timing belt material is the large spool and then you cut it. So obviously you either need to splice it into one solid belt again or what’s. Much easier is to leave it as a open ended belt.

I did the same and you can see right here. There’S, a steel bracket and inside of that bracket are the two ends of the belts. I did the same thing on the x axis: I’ll flip the camera around here. So you can see the belt is secured by the piece from the screw right there, and then this screw is threaded through the aluminum angle and it acts as a makeshift tensioner. Just to keep the right amount of tension on the belt so, like I said I put it all together and I’m really happy with the results you can see. You’Ve got great motion on both directions. You’Re gon na find that the X is way longer than it should be. I didn’t want to cut the bars down yet I will later because this machine only needs to be covering X, distance of about 10 inches, but for now I figured let’s have some fun and it’s it’s great for those of you who don’t know the way. These work is these are linear bearing blocks, and they actually have recirculating balls inside this black ring here and they allow to the a very low friction and accurate way for these to slide over these linear bearings. I’M. Pretty happy with the Y the X as you’ll, see, has some some play in it like that and that’s totally unacceptable for any sort of 3d printing or cutting application. This will be fine. The way to prove and prove that easily would be to make a longer y axis support piece or the piece that travels along the X rather and then to use two of these on each one but I’m.

Also not to worry about it, because let’s talk about cost folks I’m. Finding these bearing blocks for well under five dollars, the steppers for under ten dollars. The rail is like six or seven bucks. Tiny belt is super cheap. There are links to all this stuff in the video description right below. So if you want to purchase this or just explore more, please by all means click on those links to see sort of how I put this together, but folks we’re talking cheap. All the linear motion parts, including the steppers, are like under seventy bucks. The aluminum for me is really cheap and then you’ve just got to add your garble shield, which is 50 bucks in an Arduino, and I think that’s about it. We are planning to offer the aluminum brackets for sale on the Sanders Machine Works website. Just because we know there are some folks that don’t have the ability to easily machine the stuff and it’s easy for us. So if you’re interested in that, you can check out by the way we have a brand new website. But again the point here was: how much fun can we have with a pretty darn inexpensive, CNC setup? If you will and then the other question is, is it accurate well let’s, take a look so accuracy let’s test it for those of you who aren’t machinists we’ve got some basic machinist tools here. That also fun fact are not expensive. I’M, using some two four six blocks: these are a little bit less common.

They were actually something that I featured in my 2014. Ten machinists Christmas gift, ideas, video and they were a big hit. I had a number of folks who are like these are awesome. It’S, a great price anyways on them is a very inexpensive magnetic indicator, holder and then it’s. This thing, which is called a dial indicator and it has a ram on it or shaft, and as you push that shaft back it measures, distance and each tick, is one thousandth of an inch for those of you who aren’t familiar with that a standard sheet of Printer paper is about four thousand, so it takes four ticks to measure the thickness of one piece of paper, so in other words, these things are pretty darn precise. You can see that move right here, so let’s do this. I’Ve got it set up here with the plunger against this. The one of the linear bearings on it’s, going to travel with our X motion and I’ve got this thing pre loaded now the first thing we’re going to do not measure accuracy, but rather repeatability. In other words, I don’t care how far it goes. I care. Does it come back to the same point so we’ve got it set up here, I’ll just twist this so we’re right on zero, now let’s type in a relatively arbitrary distance G, 0, 1 X, negative 0.4 hit enter okay moves to some distance now, we’ll go back And type G 0, 1, X, 0 and the million dollar question is how close to zero.

Do we get mm that’s, pretty darn good? I will take that any day. Remember folks: we’re using very inexpensive parts, they’re, not rigid, there’s lots of types of looseness, even wiggling. The even wiggling the aluminum right there gives you play of quite a few thousand and again I’m. Okay, with all that, I still think this is just amazing now let’s, take it one step further got the needle lined up on 0 I’m going to click. Send this program goes further and it’s pausing at the end of each stroke. Just so you can sort of see well go, I think 7 times, so maybe that’s three and you can see it seems to be repeating within about well. That was right. On 1, 0, 1 thow plus 1000, a full thought, maybe half a saw it back and forth about an inch seven times and you’re holding tolerance again. I’M, not trying to say that this is a. You know revolutionary CNC machine here, I’m, just trying to say, with this inexpensive components in a relatively relatively flimsy construction, we could do some really cool stuff. So let’s keep running with this and the introduction of the video I ran a bit intro decode let’s. Take a quick look at that. Show you just how easy it is. G 0 1 just means we’re moving at the standard rate versus G 0 0, which is a rapid, so we’re just saying: go G 0 1. Go to Y 2 X, negative 8.

Point 5. At a feed rate of 300 we’ll get into what that means later, then go back to y 0, X, 0 and there’s no reason for a space here other than my preference to see a break then go just over to the ex exactly here. Let’S let’s think to this. So this should be the XampY moving at the same time, and that should be as well now we’re just going to go over the X. Then once we get to the x position of negative 8.5 we’ll go up to in the Y and then it’ll go over in the X and then we’ll go back in the Y. So this should draw a box versus this up here, which is a diagonal. Then we go to a fixed position here of 1x of 1y. If negative or seems to be X negative for y1, then we increment over and point to X’s. As you can see here, four point, two four point: four or four point: six and in between each one we have a pause g4 of pause, 0.5 0.5 seconds. So let’s take a look at that now that you’ve seen the code and so we’ll just go to browse. Sorter, open and we’ll run that code and you can see again we should have a diagonal first, then it should draw a box and then from the home position. It’Ll come somewhere here in the middle and index over a few times, there’s our box and then here’s.

The indexing over pretty cool right folks, so we know g code works. Now we need to figure out how to make use of it. So now we do need to get into some some math and it’s, not in any way hard, but well there’s. Just no choice about it, so in the GUI and by the way folks, I really appreciate a lot of folks recommended. There are different and even better user interfaces for garble out there. I need to check those out so let’s talk about the map. We need G code that makes sense in this in terms of how far the distance is to move so let’s take a look at something we print dollar sign dollar sign enter, we get the parameters that garble came with. The most important ones are the first two, and what that is is the distance per step. You remember from the first video we had this little scratch excel file, where we did some basic math and we sort. We said that we knew it’s 200 steps per revolution of the stepper, and so, if there’s right now, it’s the garble set at 250 steps is 1 millimeter. So to make the steppers go one revolution, it would need to go G 0, 1 X, negative point eight and that sure enough proved that the steppers went one full revolution, which is great well now, we’ve got a different factor. We’Ve got the factor that we’re not driving directly from the stepper.

The stepper is driving a timing pulley. The timing poise right here measure 38 of an inch on our dial calipers. So math is pretty straightforward. We just simply do pi times the diameter times. The number of revolutions so 375 times one revolution times, pi means one revolution of our stepper motor. Should move this one point. One seven, eight inches great let’s, see if that’s true we’ve got the dial indicator back set up here, got it on zero. Preloaded will go into garble and we’ll. Just type 0, 1 X negative point eight enter and it goes past. It goes to 1.25, so about 70000 pass. It here’s. The thing I’m actually not worried about that right now, just to prove if we go back to 0, should be should be pretty accurate to 0 1 X 0. Again will run right. Look at that folks right on 0. The reason it’s going a little bit too far is that we’re actually a little bit wider than 38 on our pulleys. Ok, so we thought 200 revolute 200. Steps, which is we know, is one revolution for sure would go one point, one: seven, eight that’s. What I’ve got right here ends up that it actually went if we look back at the dial indicator about one point: two five six so we’ll put that in here. So what that means in millimeters is thirty, one point nine, and so we want to know okay. Well, if 200 steps is 31.

9, then that means one millimeter is six point: two six nine steps. So when we go back to the garble setup file – and we see this first line it’s asking us how far should I turn a stepper to go one millimeter? So we need to change that from 250 down to six point, two: six, nine! So we’ll do that by just typing dollar: sign zero equals it’s. Here, six point: two: six: nine six point: two: six nine enter: we get an okay we’ll check our parameters by open them up again and boom. There we go now if you’re wondering wait a min here. Why do we go from 250 all the way down to six? The answer is simple: we’re doing effectively a direct drive out put from the stepper to a timing, pulley normally you’d be using a lead screw and a lead screw has a much finer pitch. So you have to turn the motor a lot further to get the same motion. But for us that was the same thing will hold true for the y axis, so we will do dollar sign one equals six point. Two. Six! Nine just quickly check that perfect, but now we’ve got a problem. If we say G 0 G, 0, 1, X, negative point, negative 5 millimeter and hit enter. Look it’s got this nasty jerky motion to it. It’Ll go a little further, so you can see G 0. 1 X negative 15, so we got to update a couple more settings real, quick.

I went ahead and was playing around with this earlier, so let’s just look through what I came up with your default, so we want to change we’ve already changed: 0 amp 1. Obviously, we want to go ahead and change. 3. 4. 5. Amp. 8. 8 is one of the most important ones, so we’ll do 8 as 500 that’s up from 100, and I think that was the big difference. So dollar sign 8 equals 500. Now we’ll try G 0, 1 X 0. My life 4 amp 5 are big, so 4, because 2000 dollar sign 5 equals 2000. Okay. Now we need to type in the feed rate for the first time to force it to update and we want to go at 2000 F mm, so G 0, 1 X, negative, 15. F. 2000, though, look at that and then we’ll go back to 0. I think you can now just type an x 0, no more need for the feed because it carries the feed forward and look at that were 2 mm shy. We’Ll repeat that again, still less than 2000 saw awesome now we’re getting some water. Okay. Now our most important test. Yet in theory, then, if we go X, negative 20 that’s 20 millimeters, it should go point 7, 8, 7, that’s. The inch equivalent, which I have to use because my dial indicator is in inches, so let’s hop over here. G 0, 1 X, negative, 20 boom and let’s take a look.

We are at 7, 8 6 holy smokes volts for 1000 off nothing wrong with that. That’S, sweet, ok, let’s, see! If this thing we built worth anything, I have got in SolidWorks a CAD model of my company’s logo, saunders machine works and for those of you that are watching this video, but it may be new to my channel. A lot of what I do is machining and CNC work. So in fact, we just started a series called choose your own CNC adventured, where we had over 100 folks send in metal and plastic type of parts that they want to understand how they would be machined or manufactured. So, if you’re interested in learning more about the process of machine chod would welcome you to either subscriber to check out some of those videos, but what we’re gon na do is we’re gon na take this cad model and we’re going to export it via this little Button right here to sprutcam sprutcam is what creates the g code for the manufacturing process. So again, CAD is what you use to sort of build the house, if you, the architectural style cam, is what you then do to say. Okay, I need to cut here and drill here and nail here if you will so what we can do is we’re gon na do what’s called a 2d contouring operation which is going to just follow along 2d contours or curves or lines, as you might think.

If, for those of you had followed my solid or my spirit can videos you know I like to be sneaky and when how we select these lines, and rather than mouse over each one and hold down control, we can just turn off the surfaces view it from The front click alt or excuse me, click and drag that now hold down alt and drag like so and now you’ve selected, just the ones you wanted. Somehow we missed one hold down shift and you can finish that those few up and now you’ve got the geometry. We need by just selecting curves. I already did this in the operation right here. Look at some of the parameters tool, won’t matter, because we have no z axis or even a spindle. Here we want to run at 3000 millimeters per minute and again this doesn’t matter. Only thing I did was I smooth out the arcs just so we didn’t have as too much jerkiness. So what this does is when you post process it that’s a process that involves sending creating g code, that’s bespoke for certain types of machines that need different parameters to start and stop and so forth. The generic code will work pretty much just fine, so I’ll click run and we get this g code right here now. I need to delete this stuff in the beginning, because garble it’s just comments, garble doesn’t know what to do about that and then I needed to delete the this is a tool height position, that’s against custom, to my machine, not a big deal.

Just I think, there’s one at the end, I need to clean up and now this is a Cartesian, basically Cartesian, coordinate system, that’s called g code. That should let us use the garble to engrave or mark this logo. So in Universal g code sender we will browse. We will open that file and then here’s what’s cool click, visualize boom. Look at that that’s, pretty cool, now hopping back to the machine itself. What I did is I just cribbed up a piece of aluminum with a sheet of paper on top of it. That gets me pretty close to the right height we’ll, see if give cut me some slack folks, if this isn’t 100 perfect, because the point of this machine isn’t to have a Z like this pen or an engraver we’re gon na. Do one on that, though, here in a few weeks, I’m so I’m, hoping that this will come out? Okay, but the idea is to use this sharpie to trace this logo on a piece of paper again folks, we’re talking about such an easy thing to build so inexpensive. I think this is cool. I’Ve talked about at my channel before we live in a great era to have these tools at our disposal to be able to do this stuff, I think, is awesome. So let’s get this thing set up here. So I’m gon na take the pin cap off what we’re gon na see is it’s going to be tracing, though some lines around as it finds, goes to a certain position.

So the logo isn’t going to look perfect because we don’t have a zero track. Again, we could build one, just not the point of this specific machine for me. So let’s see if this’ll work here just come in from this side, looks like my pens, a little low pull up there. We go okay, so again, bear with me folks, because we’ve got some smudging. I think I’m gon na have to just sort of put a little bit of tension on this, so it doesn’t move now let’s see here. I’Ve got the file ready we’re in the top left corner, which is where I want to start so I’m going to click. Send and then we can actually use the visualize box to watch along so without further ado send visualize. Here we go holy cow there. We get a little bit of light pen, it’s, okay, here’s, the W. Oh, this is actually working much better than I thought I thought the pen would be there. I thought there would be more vibration or variants. They were getting a little bit of a light line. This is grateful holy cow. This is a little jerky. I got to work on that, but that’s it look at that folks in a few seconds, it’s like our little pimp water. This has really been one of my favorite Wednesday widgets folks. I was a kid. I went to a museum in Columbus called kosai Sam’s first Center of Science and Industry, and they had a machine.

There was almost like a cuca type, robotic arm and you could, I think, can’t remember whether you could ask you to draw your neighbor. It would just draw a pre programmed name, it was beautiful. I mean a harmonic drive, speed, precision a lot more than this thing, but nevertheless that made me as a kid know. I want to build robots like that. I want to be able to do that and in some respects I never got there because it’s not what I do but look what we just did folks – and you can do this too it’s so easy it’s, but so inexpensive and it’s awesome. So I’m gon na keep running with this project as the hopper design we’re also gon na be building one again with linear bearings that it’s going to be much more rigid for actual cutting applications, so stay tuned. For that I want to thank tormach they’re, the sponsor in these videos. They helped put these content out. They helped allow me to dedicate the time to these videos they actually using the tormach. Vise is here to hold up the setup for just to make it rigid and easy for the videography. So thanks to tormach, if you guys, are interested in this stuff, please comment subscribe thumbs up share it with your friends. It means a lot. I remind that 35000. Subscribers, which I’m is incredible to me, I’d like to get to a hundred which seems insurmountable right now, but I’m gon na try to keep putting out good content on Arduino and see and see and manufacturing and prototyping and we’ll take it from there.


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Comment (21)

  1. Cool little toy. I couldn’t help but think about the large industrial Multicam precision CNC gantry routers which this is a mini replica of. It you added an additional stepper and pulley system to the opposite side on X, you’d have something there that would greatly improve speed, accuracy and rigidity along X. Although the Multicam’s are using steppers with gears on racks, the drive belts and pretty rigid for amatuer home use. Check their stuff out. Overpriced, but they have a lot of capability.

  2. You should add extra braces to get that wiggle out of the axis. just 2 stiff pieces of metal bolted to the top will fix that.

  3. You were 2 thousandth off because you dropped the 0.001 off your measurement. when you go 2000x.001 = 2. You introduced that error with your rounding. it seems like a small thing until you do it thousands of times.

  4. Question? Looks like the Grbl runs pretty smoothly. I’ve got machines here with Centeoid Acorn and Linux CNC an a table top router with a 3kw motor we want to connect to motion control and happen to have an arsenal of arduino here. Yes we make Radio Shack look like a phone store, haha. Anyways despite the fact we have all these arduino boards we havent yet used any of the shields. We thought we’d tinker some day however every machine we build we have negated arduino. With closed loop AC servos using step/dir signals would you feel the router would be a dependable machine with GRBL?

  5. because of your videos i just bought a 3 axis 3040. if i told you what i got it for youd never believe it in a million years. but at the end of the build it will be a 5 axis for just about $250. well maybe 300 ill have to purchase a 5 axis controller. i have been 3d modeling since 1991 so that part of fusion 360 was easy but learning the ins and outs of g code is the next step

  6. I would have used threaded rods instead as the problem compared to printers for a cnc is that it may disturbe the motors when as for example engraving due to non linear movement in directions of the drillbits. Thats why a nema 23 wich has more holding torque does the job a bit better, the 17 can do it very well but they dont have the mass in the shafts to even out lets say vibrations, bumps etc

  7. I’m very shocked to hear a machinist say that he isn’t worried about all the slop that is in that set of rails, you can mic that all day and I guess I’d say it may be ok as long as your only going to usi it for laser engraving, but as soon as you mount a motor on that and as soon as it starts a cutting process the tourque & resistance are going to mess any piece they try to cut even if they are only milling a thou or two at maybe 5 mm a minute, unless you planning on cutting foam and balsa wood. if the people your selling this to are planning on being able to use it on metal, & don’t realize that they are going to have to run it at 5mm a minute or less in order to keep it from destroying any piece of work they put on it. Especially if you making this to use on metal, as much slop as it has it would probably not be very accurate on dense foam over an inch thick.

  8. I’m a welder but have a deep interest in building my own machines. This is a great resource! Thank you ver y much for the information you provide!!!


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