Initially, we have seen about the digital output, sensors and analog output from the sensors to our arduino input, arduino analog input. So we have seen these kind of sensors so other than the sensors well be having some other components or modules. So in this lecture well be discussing about basic modules which are required for any basic projects. So we shall get into this lecture and discuss about the different kinds of modules, so the first module we are going to discuss is motor driver. So the name itself contains the answer that it will drive the motor uh, not only the motor, it can drive the motors. So let us move into the description. Uh. The motor driver has different varieties. L293D is one of the ic that internally uh performs this operation of motor driving. So with that uh integrated circuit on some pcb board with different other components, it is designed as l29810 motor driver and it is a controller that uses the hatchbridge to easily control the direction and speed of 2 dc motor and it contains a heat sink to remove The excess heat when the motors are driving due to the excess amount of power flowing, although these motors work at 12 volts gate motors, so the excess of amount of heat current flows, so some excess amount of heat will be produced on the circuit. So, to remove that they are present with heat, they will be helping to remove the excess of heat generated on the board.

So this is the pin configuration of motor driver and it is a look of a l2910 motor driver here. We need to connect the two input terminals of motor, a and another two input terminals of motor b with positive and negative terminals, and here we are having the controller with a 12 volts and ground and 5 volts. So we need to supply the 12 volts power supply for our motors by using this board at these two terminals and other terminal with 5 volts is present, where we can use the voltage of 5 volts from this board. So here we are having the controlling pins that can be connected to our microcontroller board, to enhance the moment or rotation of these motors based on our use cases so for each motor two pins for motor a well be having this pin one input, pin one and Pin two and motor b input pin three and four enable other pins to enhance the speed control of these motors, so here well be having the jumper and it can be removed or closed based on your requirement for the use case. So this is the typical look of the motor driver l2980. So if at all we look into the working, this is the concept of hex bridge. Here the motor will be present and there will be four switches. Actually, these are not switches, but the transistors which perform the action of the switch well be supplying with the positive and negative voltages.

So when two opposite switches are closed, then current flows in this direction and our motor rotates say clockwise direction and when these two are closed, the current flows in this direction say the motor rotates in anti clockwise direction. So without changing the terminals based on the closing of these features, the motor can be controlled in anti clockwise and clockwise direction. If those two switches are closed, no output, so hence motor will not be rotating. Similarly, if these two switches are closed, and these two are open, motor will not be rotating and if all the force features are closed, same potential on all the sides, hence the motor will not be rotated. So in this way the motor driver enables the rotation of the motor in clockwise and anti clockwise directions. Here we can look into the connection of our motor driver, so here at the motor driver, we are connecting two motors on this side and the battery with 12 volts here and the five volt supply from motor driver is used to power. Our microcontroller arduino board so and here the input four pins are given to the uh digital input, pins of our microcontroller board. So, based on the code, we write uh. We can control the these two motor rotation by providing the different inputs to these pins. So the next module well be discussing is esp8266. The description of this is that it is a low cost, wi fi module that belongs to esps family, which can use it to control your electronic projects anywhere in the world.

Although your microcontroller board is enabled to function only with the connected things, but today world is completely connected to the public network. It is internet so to enhance our board, is connected with the internet and to grab the information from the internet or to transfer the information from your board to internet servers. We need uh some connection. So further esp8266 is a wi fi module which provides internet connectivity to your microcontroller board. So it has a built in microcontroller and a 1mb flash allowing it to connect to the wi fi. The tcp ib protocol stack allows the module to communicate with the wi fi signals and it can send it can be connected to the public network. The maximum working voltage of this module is 3.3 volt, so you cant supply 5 volt. It will fry the module. So, although, if you supply 5 volt to this module, it will be burnt or it will be spoiled so ensure to supply 3.3 volt if at all, youre using 5 volt use the resistor of your required thing and work accordingly. So if at all, we look into the pin configuration and the look of the esp8266 module, it looks in this way. Here we are having eight pins out, of which two pins are for tx rx for transmission and receiving and other two for power, supply, vcc and ground and another pin for reset and enable for chip enable and another two pins are connected to the arduino uh input Output general purpose input output, pins to grab the information from your microcontroller board or to transform the information to your microcontroller board.

So this is the pin configuration of esp8266 board. So if at all, we look into the connection of our esp8266 board with arduino, it looks in this way. Uh. The two are one: the two are positive and negative for battery power. Supply are connected to our 3.3 volt and ground. The other gpio pins are connected to the digital pin 2 and 3 of our arduino uno board. So this enhanced to transfer the data from your microcontroller to uh esp8266 module or from your module to your microcontroller board. So this enhances the connectivity of your microcontroller board with the internet, so the next module we are going to discuss is bluetooth module so hc05. This is the name of our bluetooth module. It provides switching mode between master and slave mode, which means it will be able to use neither receiving nor transmitting data. So bluetooth is the technology for wireless communication. It is designed to replace cable connections. It is uses cl communication to communicate with the devices it communicates with microcontroller, using the serial port by use sar to usart. This is the communication protocol, so if at all, you are within the same region but uh but uh, the thing is that you are connected to the nearest um, some uh sort of project. That means you need your microcontroller board need to grab the data from the nearest connected module or the data point. So for that you need not to go with the internet, because internet is for uh.

You can be useful if it is situated with the long distance, but here it is located within the short distance. So here you can use the bluetooth within the range of the bluetooth module. You can and enhance the coming communication and connectivity with your microcontroller board. So this is the pin configuration of your bluetooth module here youre having the button. It is a reset button, and here you are having the led, which blinks uh, to show you the proper connectivity it is having six pins out, of which one is enable other two offer power supply, vcc ground and another two offer takes rx to enhance the communication And one first state, so this is the pin configuration of the bluetooth module. So if, at all, we look into the pin diagram of the bluetooth module here, the txrx pins are connected to the tx rx of our arduino board. To enhance the communication from our arduino board to the bluetooth so that it can transfer to the nearest bluetooth connected device and for the power supply. It is connected with vcc and ground to 5 volts and ground so based on some. If you are having your moon for phone or mobile, you can connect to this bluetooth and if you develop some app of your own kind, you can turn on this light and turn off this light. Based on your phone connectivity using this bluetooth module to our microcontroller. So in this way, the bluetooth module helps over the short area within the range of bluetooth.

So this is all about the different kinds of modules which are basic and necessary to be discussed, and this is the end of this lecture.