arduino 3d printer software
This is actually a typical mechatronics system because it involves mechanical electrical and computer engineering. I’Ve lived, many engineering, students or anyone who’s new into mechatronics would find this video interesting. Personally, I really enjoyed making this project and I’m even more excited about explaining in details how it works and how you can build one yourself. So first the wire goes through a series of rollers or straighteners using a stepper motor. The wire is precisely fed to the bending mechanism, which also uses a stepper motor, as well as a small servo for the bending process. There’S also another stepper motor called the z axis, which actually enables the machine to create the three dimensional forms. Of course, the brain of the machine is an Arduino board which, along with the other components, is attached on a custom designed PCB. As for the program, I made few custom functions for making various shapes like a star, a cube and a simple stand, as well as the manual mode where we can make the wire forms by entering commands through the serial monitor. As usual, I started by designing the project using a 3d modeling software. You can find and download this 3d model from the website article. The link is in the description of this video for some of the parts like the gears, the bearing tool blocks and some shaft cutters. I use a 3d printer to make them they steal files for these parts, which are used for 3d printing are also provided in the website article.
My new 3d printer reality’s here 10 did a great job and printed the parts in a great quality. There is also a link to this 3d printer in the description in case you want to check it out. I continued with preparing the other parts for which I used aimed efn plywood. So once I took all dimensions from the 3d model, using a circular saw, I cut the pieces to size. I used 8 millimeters thick MDF, eighteen millimeters thick plywood. Once I got them ready. I started with the assembly. First, I made the base out of two MDF plates and four ply wood columns for securing them. I used the wood glue and some screws next. On the top panel, I attach the 3d printed bearing tool blocks using some 8 millimeters bolts and nuts. We cannotice here that I added three millimeter thick MDF plates between the top and the pillow blocks so that I get the proper height now in these blocks. We can fit the six 202 bearings their outer. Diameter is 35 millimeters and the inner diameter is 15 millimeters. So now true, these bearings: we need to insert a 15 millimeters hollow shaft so that the wire could pass through it. I used a copper tube for that purpose in its length need to be around 30 centimeters in between the two bearings, I also inserted the 3d printed gear with a model of 1.5 and 30 teeth. The gear has custom designed slots where we can insert a m tree nuts and then using m3 bolts.
We can tighten the gear to the shaft next. We need to install the z axis stepper motor for that purpose. I truly printed a custom mounting bracket, so I secured the stepper motor to the bracket using m3 bolts and then inserted the 18 t to gear onto the motor shaft. I used the same method for securing the gear to the shaft, as shown earlier then, using a six millimeters drill. I made two holes on the top on which the mounting bracket will be secured. We cannotice that the bracket instead of holes has slots which enables the two gears to be properly paired. I moved on with installing the stepper motor for the feeder mechanism. This motor will be directly mounted to the top plate, so I drilled the appropriate holes on it. Then using four bolts, I secured a stepper to the plate and in case you wonder what those nuts do here, they actually act as distance nuts, because the balls that I had were longer and couldn’t fit into the motor strats. So now onto the shaft of this stepper motor, we need to insert the feeder for that purpose. I truly printed a custom coupler, on which I inserted a copper tube, which will actually be the contact surface of the feeder, then on the opposite side of the motor. I installed a lever on which I attached a bearing, which will press against the feeder for getting enough grip so that the feeder could move the wire.
I will attach a piece of plywood with a T nut on it and then using a bolt we will be able to control the grip of the feeder. The next step is making the wire straightening system using 3m eight bolts. I secured a piece of plywood that I previously drilled according to the 3d model. Now, on top of it, I inserted the rollers. I made the rollers out of bearings and 3d printed, grooved outer rings. Three rollers go on this side and two rollers. On the other side, for the other side, I made a slot in the plywood piece so that the ball stay flush with the piece now using just two bolts, we can pair the two sides and using the nuts we can tighten the straighteners appropriately once finished. With this step, I added two more pieces of plywood in front and after the straighteners, which will serve as wire guides. Okay, so now we can move on with making the bending mechanism first on a piece of MDF, we need to attach the bender motor before I did that the MDF piece that I had needed, some shaping so using a handsaw, a coping, saw and rasp. I easily got the desired shape, then using a 38 millimeters whole soul. I made an opening for the bigger stepper that we will use for the bending a NEMA 23 stepper motor. Also, I drilled some smaller holes needed for attaching the other parts. I secured the NEMA 23 stepper using m4 bolts and nuts and on its output shaft, I attached a gear with a module of 2.
5 and a tinted. This gear will be paired with a bigger 38 8th gear, which is a custom design gear with integrated plate for mounting a mg in 1996. Our server this servo will move a rack and pinion mechanism, which is actually a pin which will pop out of the gear, and it will serve for bending the wire using a five minute epoxy. I secure the bearing onto the gear and also added a of copper tube onto the rack, which will be the contact surface for bending the wire after the epoxy dried out. I paired the two gears by securing the bigger gear in place with a m8 bolt and nuts. Then I inserted the rack and the servo in place and secured it with the screws provided in the servo package. Then I secured the pinion gear onto the round Horn of the servo using 2, m3 bolts and nuts. Finally, I attached the horn to the servo and with this the bending mechanism was completed. What’S left to do now is to attach the bender to the z axis. I did that using 2 3d printed shaft clamps. First, I secured them to the bender plate using m6 bolts and nuts, and then I inserted them into the z axis. I inserted the two nuts in place and using the bolts I tightened the clamps to the shaft. So now all moving parts are working properly. Actually there are two more small details to be added and that’s.
This 3 millimeter nozzle on the shaft, where the wire comes out and at the bottom of the bender I placed a micro limit switch which will be used for setting the initial position of the bender and that’s it. Our 3d wire binding machine is almost done. I say almost because now we need to give life to this machine or connect the electronics components and program it here’s the circuit diagram of this project, so the three stepper motors are controlled using the three drv8825 stepper drivers for powering the steppers and the whole project. We will use 12 volts power supply with at least three amps of current rate for powering the servo. We could use the 5 volts coming from the arduino, but the mg 99 6r server can be power hungry and the 5 volts voltage regulator of the arduino might not be able to handle it. Therefore, I decided to use a separate 5 volts voltage regulator. The lm7805, which is good enough to power the servo for this project. There is also a limit switch for the bender, which has a pull up, resistor and it’s connected to a digital pin of the Arduino board. Next, in order to get rid of wiring mess and keep the electronics comp it’s organized, I designed a custom PCB using the ECD, a free online circuit design software. The circuit has many connections, so I use both the top and the bottom layer to organize them. I also added pins for selecting the steppers resolution added one more limit switch connection and provided additional digital and analog pins coming from the Arduino in case, we need them for something you can find a link to the project files of this PCB design on the website.
Article so once finished with this step, I generated the Gerber file needed for manufacturing the PCB. Then I ordered the PCB from jlc PCB, which is actually the sponsor of this video. Here we can simply drag and drop the Gerber file and once uploaded we can review our PCB in the Gerber viewer. If everything is alright, then we can go on select the properties that we want for our PCB, and then we can order our PCB at a reasonable price. Note that if it’s your first order from jlc PCB, you can get up to 10 PCBs for only 2. After several days, the PCBs have arrived, the quality of the PCBs is great and everything is exactly the same as in the design. So now we can move on and install the electronics components onto the PCB. I started by soldering pin headers to the PCB. This enables easier connecting and disconnecting of components when needed. As for the smaller components like the capacitors, the resistors, the voltage regulator and terminal blocks, i soldered them directly onto the PCB once finished. With this step now we can insert the stepper drivers in the arduino in place. Then we need to connect the power plug and power switch to the terminal blocks, connect the cables to the stepper motors on one side and connect them to the PCB. On the other side, the servo is connected to digital pin, number tool and powered with the five volts coming from the lm7805 voltage regulator.
Finally, we can select the stepper resolution by connecting the resolution things below the drivers. I decided to use 16 step resolution, so we need to connect the right pins instead of the middle ones as seen here on the video. So the electronics components are now ready and we can move on with programming the machine here’s. The original code for controlling the stepper motors – I will use the Excel stepper library by Mike McCauley. So we need to include this library as well as the servo library for controlling the servo motor. Then we need to define the pins to which the steppers are connected and some variables needed for the program below in the setup section, we need to set the initial position of the servo or the bending pin and also set the initial position of the bender gear. This is done with the help of the limit switch, the stepper motor rotates toward the switch and once it’s pressed the motor starts counting the steps from 0 and position itself to 0 degrees ready for bending. Now, in the loop section we wait for commands coming from the serial monitor if P type manual, we will enter the manual bending mode or if we type, for example, star the star custom function will be executed and the machine will automatically make a star for us. Let’S take a look at this custom function, so here we enter while loop, which is executed 5 times, because obviously a star has 5 points.
We start by setting the feed value or that’s how much wire will be fed in millimeters. This value is then multiplied by 48, which translated a feed value into appropriate steps for the stepper motor to move then using the run function, we rotate the feeder with a speed set by the set speed function. We stop when the above feed distance value is reached, and right after that, we set the current position value of the stepper to 0. In the next step, we bend the wire 52 degrees. This is done in a similar way, as explained above here. We also have an angle constant, which is multiplied with the desired angle, once the value is reached by the motor, the motor stops resets its current position to zero and then run the same number of steps in the opposite direction, which actually returns the more to its Initial position, then again we feed the stimulant of wire and we set the pin down so that the bender can moved to a new initial position which is used for bending in the other direction. The bender pin is then rised, and so we bend the wire 105 degrees in the opposite direction. The above commands are repeated five times and that’s how we get the star form in similar way, as explained above we make the cube, shape or any other shape. We can come up with, as for the manual mode, the working principle of the commands are the same, except that we have few more lines for reading the commands coming from the serial monitor, for example, for feeding the wire, we need to type F, plus the distance In millimeters for bending the wire, we need to type B plus the angle in degrees and for rotating the z axis.
We need to type Z plus the angle in degrees, so that’s how the program that I made works, but of course there are many other ways. These to be coded at the end, I would like to point out that the wire straightening system is actually not working like it should work, because if I tighten it more, the feeder loses grip and the wire doesn’t move for solving this issue. You could try to use different, stronger material than the copper tube or make a different feeder system so that’s it.
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